Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 20211969(a.k.a. Nobel Prize in Economics) 
2021
The prize was awarded with one half to DAVID CARD for his empirical contributions to labour economics. and the other half jointly to: JOSHUA D. AANGRIST, and GUIDO W. IMBENS for their methodological contributions to the analysis of causal relationships The prize was awarded jointly to: PAUL R. MILGROM, and ROBERT B. WILSON for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats. The prize was awarded jointly to: ABHIJIT BANERJEE, ESTHER DUFLO, and MICHAEL KREMER for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.
The prize was awarded to: WILLIAM D. NORDHAUS for integrating climate change into longrun macroeconomic analysis and PAUL M. ROMER for integrating technological innovations into longrun macroeconomic analysis
The prize was awarded to: RICHARD H. THALER for his contributions to behavioural economics
The prize was awarded jointly to: OLIVER HART and BENGT HOLMSTRÖM for their contributions to contract theory
The prize was awarded to: ANGUS DEATON for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare.
The prize was awarded to: JEAN TIROLE for his analysis of market power and regulation.
The prize was awarded jointly to: EUGENE F. FAMA , LARS PETER HANSEN and ROBERT J. SHILLER for their empirical analysis of asset prices.
The prize was awarded jointly to: ALVIN E. ROTH , and LLOYD S. SHAPLEY for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design.
The prize was awarded to: THOMAS J. SARGENT , and CHRISTOPHER A. SIMS for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy.
The prize was awarded jointly to: PETER A. DIAMOND , DALE T. MORTENSEN , and CHRISTOPHER A. PISSARIDES for their analysis of markets with search frictions.
The prize was shared between: ELINOR OSTROM for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons and OLIVER E. WILLIAMSON for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm
The prize goes to: PAUL KRUGMAN for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity.
The prize was awarded jointly to: LEONID HURWICZ , ERIC S. MASKIN , and ROGER B. MYERSON for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory.
The prize goes to: EDMUND S. PHELPS for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy.
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT J. AUMANN and THOMAS C. SCHELLING for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through gametheory analysis.
The prize was awarded jointly to: FINN E. KYDLAND and EDWARD C. PRESCOTT for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles
The prize was shared between: ROBERT F. ENGLE for methods of analyzing economic time series with timevarying volatility (ARCH) and CLIVE W. J. GRANGER , for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)
The prize was shared between: DANIEL KAHNEMAN for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decisionmaking under uncertainty and VERNON L. SMITH, for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms
The prize was awarded jointly to: GEORGE A. AKERLOF, A. MICHAEL SPENCE, and JOSEPH E. STIGLITZ, for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information.
The prize will be shared between: JAMES J. HECKMAN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples and DANIEL L. MCFADDEN for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice.
ROBERT A. MUNDELL for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas.
AMARTYA SEN for his contributions to welfare economics.
ROBERT C. MERTON and MYRON S. SCHOLES for a new method to determine the value of derivatives.
JAMES A. MIRRLEES and WILLIAM VICKREY for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information.
ROBERT LUCAS for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy.
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN C. HARSANYI , JOHN F. NASH and REINHARD SELTEN for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of noncooperative games.
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT W. FOGEL and DOUGLASS C. NORTH for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change.
GARY S. BECKER for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour.
RONALD H. COASE for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy.
The prize was awarded with one third each to: HARRY M. MARKOWITZ , MERTON M. MILLER and WILLIAM F. SHARPE for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics.
TRYGVE HAAVELMO for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures.
MAURICE ALLAIS for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources.
ROBERT M. SOLOW for his contributions to the theory of economic growth.
JAMES M. BUCHANAN, JR. for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decisionmaking.
FRANCO MODIGLIANI for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets.
SIR RICHARD STONE for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis.
GERARD DEBREU for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium.
GEORGE J. STIGLER for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation.
JAMES TOBIN for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices.
LAWRENCE R. KLEIN for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies.
The prize was divided equally between: THEODORE W. SCHULTZ and SIR ARTHUR LEWIS for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries.
HERBERT A. SIMON for his pioneering research into the decisionmaking process within economic organizations.
The prize was divided equally between: BERTIL OHLIN and JAMES E MEADE for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements.
MILTON FRIEDMAN for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy.
The prize was awarded jointly to: LEONID VITALIYEVICH KANTOROVICH and TJALLING C. KOOPMANS for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources.
The prize was divided equally between: GUNNAR MYRDAL and FRIEDRICH AUGUST VON HAYEK for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena.
WASSILY LEONTIEF for the development of the inputoutput method and for its application to important economic problems.
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN R. HICKS and KENNETH J. ARROW for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory.
SIMON KUZNETS for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development.
PAUL A SAMUELSON for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science.
The prize was awarded jointly to: RAGNAR FRISCH and JAN TINBERGEN for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes.
