Nobel Prize in Physics Winners 20211901(also available in alphabetical arrangement) 
2021
The prize was divided, with one half awarded jointly to: SYUKURO MANABE and KLAUS HASSELMANN for the physical modelling of Earth's climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming
and the other half awarded to: GIORGIO PARISI for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.
The prize was divided, with one half awarded to: ROGER PENROSE for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity
and the other half jointly to: REINHARD GENZEL and ANDREA GHEZ for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy.
The prize was awarded for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth's place in the cosmos, with one half awarded to: JAMES PEEBLES for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology
and the other half jointly to: MICHEL MAYOR and DIDIER QUELOZ for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solartype star
The prize was divided, one half awarded to: ARTHUR ASHKIN for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems
and the other half jointly to: GÉRARD MOUROU and DONNA STRICKLAND for their method of generating highintensity, ultrashort optical pulses.
The prize was divided, one half awarded to: RAINER WEISS and the other half jointly to: BARRY C. BARISH and KIP S. THORNE for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves
The prize was divided, one half awarded to: and the other half jointly to: F. DUNCAN M. HALDANE and J. MICHAEL KOSTERLITZ for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.
The prize was awarded jointly to: TAKAAKI KAJITA and ARTHUR B. MCDONALD for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass.
The prize was awarded jointly to: ISAMU AKASAKI, HIROSHI AMANO, and SHUJI NAKAMURA for the invention of efficient blue lightemitting diodes which has enabled bright and energysaving white light sources.
The prize was awarded jointly to: FRANÇOIS ENGLERT and PETER W. HIGGS for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider.
The prize was awarded jointly to: SERGE HAROCHE and DAVID J. WINELAND for groundbreaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems.
The prize was awarded with one half to: SAUL PERLMUTTER and the other half jointly to BRIAN P. SCHMIDT and ADAM G. RIESS for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.
The prize was awarded jointly to: ANDRE GEIM and KONSTANTIN NOVOSELOV for groundbreaking experiments regarding the twodimensional material graphene.
The prize is being awarded with one half to: CHARLES K. KAO for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication and the other half jointly to: WILLARD S. BOYLE and GEORGE E. SMITH for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit  the CCD sensor.
The prize is being awarded with one half to: YOICHIRO NAMBU for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics and the other half jointly to: MAKOTO KOBAYASHI and TOSHIHIDE MASKAWA for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.
The prize is being awarded jointly to: ALBERT FERT and PETER GRÜNBERG for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance.
The prize is being awarded jointly to: JOHN C. MATHER and GEORGE C. SMOOT for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
The prize is being awarded with one half to: ROY J. GLAUBER for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence and one half jointly to JOHN L. HALL and THEODOR W. HÄNSCH for their contributions to the development of laserbased precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique
The prize is being awarded jointly to: DAVID J. GROSS, H. DAVID POLITZER and FRANK WILCZEK for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
The prize is being awarded jointly to: ALEXEI A. ABRIKOSOV, VITALY L. GINZBURG and ANTHONY J. LEGGETT for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: RAYMOND DAVIS JR., and MASATOSHI KOSHIBA for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos and the other half to: RICCARDO GIACCONI for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic Xray sources
The prize is being awarded jointly to: ERIC A. CORNELL, WOLFGANG KETTERLE and CARL E. WIEMAN for the achievement of BoseEinstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates.
The prize is being awarded with one half jointly to: ZHORES I. ALFEROV, and HERBERT KROEMER for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in highspeed and optoelectronics and and one half to: JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
The prize was awarded jointly to: GERARDUS 'T HOOFT, and MARTINUS J.G. VELTMAN for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics.
The prize was awarded jointly to: ROBERT B. LAUGHLIN, HORST L. STORMER and DANIEL C. TSUI for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.
The prize was awarded jointly to: STEVEN CHU, CLAUDE COHENTANNOUDJI and WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
The prize was awarded jointly to: DAVID M. LEE, DOUGLAS D. OSHEROFF and ROBERT C. RICHARDSON for their discovery of superfluidity in helium3.
The prize was awarded for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics, with one half to: MARTIN L. PERL for the discovery of the tau lepton. and the other half to: FREDERICK REINES for the detection of the neutrino.
The prize was awarded for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter to: BERTRAM N. BROCKHOUSE for the development of neutron spectroscopy CLIFFORD G. SHULL for the development of the neutron diffraction technique.
The prize was awarded jointly to: RUSSELL A. HULSE and JOSEPH H. TAYLOR JR. for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.
GEORGES CHARPAK for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber.
PIERREGILLES DE GENNES for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers.
The prize was awarded jointly to: JEROME I. FRIEDMAN, HENRY W. KENDALL and RICHARD E. TAYLOR for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics.
One half of the award was given to:
NORMAN F. RAMSEY
for
the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use
in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks.
HANS G. DEHMELT and WOLFGANG PAUL for the development of the ion trap technique.
The prize was awarded jointly to: LEON M. LEDERMAN, MELVIN SCHWARTZ and JACK STEINBERGER for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino.
The prize was awarded jointly to: J. GEORG BEDNORZ and K. ALEXANDER MÜLLER for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.
The prize was awarded by one half to: ERNST RUSKA for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope. GERD BINNIG and HEINRICH ROHRER for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.
KLAUS VON KLITZING for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.
The prize was awarded jointly to: CARLO RUBBIA and SIMON VAN DER MEER for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction.
The prize was divided equally between: SUBRAMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars. WILLIAM A. FOWLER for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.
KENNETH G. WILSON for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.
The prize was awarded by one half jointly to: NICOLAAS BLOEMBERGEN and ARTHUR L. SCHAWLOW for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy and the other half to: KAI M. SIEGBAHN for his contribution to the development of high resolution electron spectroscopy.
The prize was divided equally between: JAMES W. CRONIN and VAL L. FITCH for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral Kmesons.
The prize was divided equally between: SHELDON L. GLASHOW, ABDUS SALAM and STEVEN WEINBERG for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including inter alia the prediction of the weak neutral current.
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: PYOTR LEONIDOVICH KAPITSA for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of lowtemperature physics and the other half divided equally between: ARNO A. PENZIAS and ROBERT W. WILSON for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.
The prize was divided equally between: PHILIP W. ANDERSON, SIR NEVILL F. MOTT and JOHN H. VAN VLECK for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.
The prize was divided equally between: BURTON RICHTER and SAMUEL C. C. TING for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind.
The prize was awarded jointly to: AAGE BOHR, BEN MOTTELSON and JAMES RAINWATER for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR MARTIN RYLE and ANTONY HEWISH for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.
The prize was divided, one half being equally shared between: LEO ESAKI and IVAR GIAEVER , for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively, and the other half to BRIAN D. JOSEPHSON for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects.
The prize was awarded jointly to: JOHN BARDEEN, LEON N. COOPER and J. ROBERT SCHRIEFFER for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCStheory.
DENNIS GABOR for his invention and development of the holographic method.
The prize was divided equally between: HANNES ALFVÉN for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics LOUIS NÉEL for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.
MURRAY GELLMANN for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions.
LUIS W. ALVAREZ for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.
HANS ALBRECHT BETHE for his contributions to the theory ofnuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.
ALFRED KASTLER for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian resonances in atoms.
The prize was awarded jointly to: SINITIRO TOMONAGA, JULIAN SCHWINGER and RICHARD P. FEYNMAN for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deepploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles.
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: the other half jointly to: NICOLAY GENNADIYEVICH BASOV and ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH PROKHOROV for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle.
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: EUGENE P. WIGNER for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles and the other half jointly to: MARIA GOEPPERTMAYER and J. HANS D. JENSEN for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.
LEV DAVIDOVICH LANDAU for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium.
The prize was divided equally between: ROBERT HOFSTADTER for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the stucture of the nucleons RUDOLF LUDWIG MÖSSBAUER for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.
DONALD A. GLASER for the invention of the bubble chamber.
The prize was awarded jointly to: EMILIO GINO SEGRÈ and OWEN CHAMBERLAIN for their discovery of the antiproton.
The prize was awarded jointly to: PAVEL ALEKSEYEVICH CHERENKOV , IL'JA MIKHAILOVICH FRANK and IGOR YEVGENYEVICH TAMM for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect.
The prize was awarded jointly to: CHEN NING YANG and TSUNGDAO LEE for their penetratinginvestigation of the socalled parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary partic les.
The prize was awarded jointly, one third each, to: WILLIAM SHOCKLEY, JOHN BARDEEN and WALTER HOUSER BRATTAIN for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.
The prize was divided equally between: WILLIS EUGENE LAMB for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum POLYKARP KUSCH for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron.
The prize was divided equally between: MAX BORN for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction WALTHER BOTHE for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith.
FRITS (FREDERIK) ZERNIKE for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope.
The prize was awarded jointly to: FELIX BLOCH and EDWARD MILLS PURCELL for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith.
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR JOHN DOUGLAS COCKCROFT and ERNEST THOMAS SINTON WALTON for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially acce lerated atomic particles.
CECIL FRANK POWELL for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method.
HIDEKI YUKAWA for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces.
LORD PATRICK MAYNARD STUART BLACKETT for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation.
SIR EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the socalled Appleton layer.
PERCY WILLIAMS BRIDGMAN for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics.
WOLFGANG PAULI for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle.
ISIDOR ISAAC RABI for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.
OTTO STERN for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton.
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the
Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artifi cial radioactive elements.
ENRICO FERMI for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons.
The prize was awarded jointly to: CLINTON JOSEPH DAVISSON and SIR GEORGE PAGET THOMSON for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.
The prize was divided equally between: VICTOR FRANZ HESS for his discovery of cosmic radiation CARL DAVID ANDERSON for his discovery of the positron.
SIR JAMES CHADWICK for the discovery of the neutron.
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the
Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
The prize was awarded jointly to
WERNER HEISENBERG
for the creation of
quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to
the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen.
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the
Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.
SIR CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him.
PRINCE LOUISVICTOR DE BROGLIE for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons.
SIR OWEN WILLANS RICHARDSON for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him.
The prize was divided equally between: ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON for his discovery of the effect named after him CHARLES THOMSON REES WILSON for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour.
JEAN BAPTISTE PERRIN for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium.
The prize was awarded jointly to: JAMES FRANCK and GUSTAV HERTZ for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom.
KARL MANNE GEORG SIEGBAHN for his discoveries and researchin the field of Xray spectroscopy.
ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect.
NIELS BOHR for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them.
ALBERT EINSTEIN
for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys.
JOHANNES STARK for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields.
MAX KARL ERNST LUDWIG PLANCK in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta.
CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA
for his
discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements.
The prize money for 1916 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
The prize was awarded jointly to: SIR WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG and SIR WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of Xrays.
MAX VON LAUE for his discovery of the diffraction of Xrays by crystals.
HEIKE KAMERLINGHONNES for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia to the production of liquid helium.
NILS GUSTAF DALÉN for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys.
WILHELM WIEN for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat.
JOHANNES DIDERIK VAN DER WAALS for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.
The prize was awarded jointly to: GUGLIELMO MARCONI and CARL FERDINAND BRAUN in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.
GABRIEL LIPPMANN for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.
ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid.
SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.
PHILIPP EDUARD ANTON LENARD for his work on cathode rays.
LORD JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.
The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity the other half jointly to: PIERRE CURIE and MARIE CURIE, née SKLODOWSKA in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel.
The prize was awarded jointly to: HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ and PIETER ZEEMAN in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.
WILHELM CONRAD RÖNTGEN in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.
